The association between caffeine consumption and mortality in different weight statuses is unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of caffeine consumption on mortality in different weight statuses.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2014) was used in this study. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with appropriate sampling weight to assess the association of caffeine intake with mortality in different weight statuses.
A total of 37 211 participants were included in our study. Multivariate-adjusted analyses showed that moderate caffeine consumption was associated with decreased all-cause mortality in total participants (hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.89). In subsequent analyses, a significant association was found between moderate caffeine consumption and all-cause mortality in overweight persons, but this association was not found among other weight groups. In comparison with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in overweight persons were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.39-1.43) for those who had low caffeine consumption (<100 mg/d), 0.44 (95% CI, 0.22-0.89) for moderate caffeine consumption (100-<200 mg/d), and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.27-1.03) for high caffeine consumption (≥200 mg/d). No associations were found between caffeine intake and cardiovascular and cancer mortality.
The present study suggests that moderate caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in a large study of U.S. adults, especially among those who are overweight. Overweight individuals were more likely to benefit from moderate caffeine intake.