The Association Between Coffee Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous meta-analyses that found an inverse association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome pooled data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, which could lead to potentially misleading conclusions. Hence, this work aimed to reassess this association by analyzing data from the 2 types of studies separately and including recent studies. Online databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Plus, and Science Direct were searched for relevant studies published up to July 2020. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included if published after 1999, reported both effect estimates and CIs, and presented results adjusted for confounding variables. Data of the highest coffee consumption level in each study, as well as those of medium consumption levels in studies with ≥3 consumption categories, were pooled using random-effect models, with sex-stratified and sex-adjusted results being analyzed separately. Results were obtained based on data from 13 cross-sectional studies involving 280,803 participants and 2 longitudinal studies involving 17,014 participants. The overall sex-adjusted association of the highest consumption level was not significant (n = 9 studies; OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.10;I : 91.5%) and the 2 longitudinal studies both yielded no association. Subgroup analysis revealed inverse associations in both males and females, as well as in Caucasians with medium coffee consumption (n = 4 studies, OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93; I
2: 0%). Although residual confounding could affect the results of this meta-analysis, our findings suggested with a low certainty that coffee consumption may not be associated with metabolic syndrome, a finding that is different from those of previous meta-analyses and could be due to variation in characteristics of study participants. More longitudinal studies are also needed to further assess the temporal association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome
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