We evaluated the relationship of daily coffee intake with endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle function assessed by nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in patients with hypertension. A total of 462 patients with hypertension were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. First, we divided the subjects into two groups based on information on daily coffee intake: no coffee group and coffee group. The median coffee intake was two cups per day in the coffee group. There were significant differences in both flow-mediated vasodilation (2.6 ± 2.8% in the no coffee group vs. 3.3 ± 2.9% in the coffee group, p = 0.04) and nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (9.6 ± 5.5% in the no coffee group vs. 11.3 ± 5.4% in the coffee group, p = 0.02) between the two groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratio for endothelial dysfunction (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32–0.95) and the odds ratio for vascular smooth muscle dysfunction (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28–0.89) were significantly lower in the coffee group than in the no coffee group. Next, we assessed the relationship of the amount of daily coffee intake with vascular function. Cubic spline curves revealed that patients with hypertension who drank half a cup to 2.5 cups of coffee per day had lower odds ratios for endothelial dysfunction assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction assessed by nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation. Appropriate daily coffee intake might have beneficial effects on endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle function in patients with hypertension.