Currently, the association between smoking, alcohol, and coffee intake and the risk of ovarian cancer (OC) remains conflicting. In this study, we used a two-sample mendelian randomization (MR) method to evaluate the association of smoking, drinking and coffee consumption with the risk of OC and prognosis.
Five risk factors related to lifestyles (cigarettes per day, smoking initiation, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption and coffee consumption) were chosen from the Genome-Wide Association Study, and 28, 105, 10, 36 and 36 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained as instrumental variables (IVs). Outcome variables were achieved from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Inverse-variance-weighted method was mainly used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (Cl).
The two-sample MR analysis supported the causal association of genetically predicted smoking initiation (OR: 1.15 per SD, 95%CI: 1.02-1.29, P = 0.027) and coffee consumption (OR: 1.40 per 50% increase, 95%CI: 1.02-1.93, P = 0.040) with the risk of OC, but not cigarettes per day, smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption. Subgroup analysis based on histological subtypes revealed a positive genetical predictive association between coffee consumption and endometrioid OC (OR: 3.01, 95%CI: 1.50-6.04, P = 0.002). Several smoking initiation-related SNPs (rs7585579, rs7929518, rs2378662, rs10001365, rs11078713, rs7929518, and rs62098013), and coffee consumption-related SNPs (rs4410790, and rs1057868) were all associated with overall survival and cancer-specific survival in OC.
Our findings provide the evidence for a favorable causal association of genetically predicted smoking initiation and coffee consumption with OC risk, and coffee consumption is linked to a greater risk of endometrioid OC.