Light to moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of death: a UK Biobank study
To study the association of daily coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major CV outcomes. In a subgroup of participants who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we evaluated the association between regular coffee intake and cardiac structure and function.
UK Biobank participants without clinically manifested heart disease at the time of recruitment were included. Regular coffee intake was categorized into 3 groups: zero, light-to-moderate (0.5-3cups/day) and high (>3 cups/day). In the multivariate analysis, we adjusted for the main CV risk factors.
We included 468,629 individuals (56.2 ± 8.1years, 44.2% male), 22.1% did not consume coffee on a regular basis, 58.4% had0.5-3 cups per day and 19.5% had >3 cups per day. Compared to non-coffee drinkers, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups per day) coffee drinking was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (multivariate HR = 0.88, 95%CI :0.83-0.92; p < 0.001) and CV mortality (multivariate HR = 0.83, 95%CI :0.74-0.94; p = 0.006), and incident stroke (multivariate HR = 0.79, 95%CI :0.63-0.99 p = 0.037) after a median follow-up of 11 years. CMR data were available in 30,650 participants. Both light-to-moderate and high coffee consuming categories were associated with dose-dependent increased left and right ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes, as well as greater left ventricular mass.
Coffee consumption of up to 3 cups per day was associated with favorable CV outcomes. Regular coffee consumption was also associated with a likely healthy pattern of CMR metrics in keeping with the reverse of age-related cardiac alterations.
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