Coffee Intake of Colorectal Cancer Patients and Prognosis According to Histopathologic Lymphocytic Reaction and T-Cell Infiltrates
Given previous biologic evidence of immunomodulatory effects of coffee, we hypothesized that the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival differs by immune responses. Using a molecular pathologic epidemiology database of 4465 incident colorectal cancer cases, including 1262 cases with molecular data, in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association between coffee intake of colorectal cancer patients and survival in strata of levels of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction and T-cell infiltrates in tumor tissue. We did not observe a significant association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03). Although statistical significance was not reached at the stringent level (α=.005), the association of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality differed by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction (Pinteraction=.007). Coffee intake was associated with lower colorectal cancer-specific mortality in patients with high Crohn disease-like reaction (multivariable HR for 1-cup increase of coffee intake per day, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.81; Ptrend=.002) but not in patients with intermediate Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.44) or negative/low Crohn disease-like reaction (the corresponding HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.07). The associations of coffee intake with colorectal cancer-specific mortality did not significantly differ by levels of other lymphocytic reaction or any T-cell subset (Pinteraction>.18). There is suggestive evidence for differential prognostic effects of coffee intake by Crohn disease-like lymphoid reaction in colorectal cancer.
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