Coffee consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a pooled analysis of 501,604 participants from 12 cohort studies in the Bladder Cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) International Study
Recent epidemiological studies have shown varying associations between coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC). This research aims to elucidate the association between coffee consumption and BC risk by bringing together worldwide cohort studies on this topic. Coffee consumption in relation to BC risk was examined by pooling individual data from 12 cohort studies, comprising of 2601 cases out of 501,604 participants. Pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using multilevel Weibull regression models. Furthermore, dose-response relationships were examined using generalized least squares regression models. The association between coffee consumption and BC risk showed interaction with sex (P-interaction < 0.001) and smoking (P-interaction = 0.001). Therefore, analyses were stratified by sex and smoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, an increased BC risk was shown for high (> 500 ml/day, equivalent to > 4 cups/day) coffee consumption compared to never consumers among male smokers (current smokers: HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.42, P-trend = 0.002; former smokers: HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.85, P-trend = 0.001). In addition, dose-response analyses, in male smokers also showed an increased BC risk for coffee consumption of more than 500 ml/day (4 cups/day), with the risk of one cup (125 ml) increment as 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.08). This research suggests that positive associations between coffee consumption and BC among male smokers but not never smokers and females. The inconsistent results between sexes and the absence of an association in never smokers indicate that the associations found among male smokers is unlikely to be causal and is possibly caused by residual confounding of smoking.
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