Purpose of Review:
Coffee is a very popular drink and an estimated 2.25 billion cups worldwide are consumed daily. Such popularity of coffee makes it the most consumed drink next to water. Numerous studies have shown a beneficial effect of habitual and moderate coffee consumption on the functioning of the nervous, digestive, and cardiovascular systems, as well as on kidney function. Taking into account the very high prevalence of arterial hypertension in the world (31.1% of adults), much controversy has been raised about the influence of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the risk of arterial hypertension. Moreover, there have been extensive discussions about the safety of coffee consumption for hypertensive persons.
There are over 1000 chemical compounds in coffee. The best characterized of these are caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, kahweol, cafestol, ferulic acid, and melanoidins. These compounds have bidirectional influences on blood pressure regulation. The results of numerous studies and meta-analyses indicate that moderate and habitual coffee consumption does not increase and may even reduce the risk of developing arterial hypertension. Conversely, occasional coffee consumption has hypertensinogenic effects. Moderate habitual coffee consumption in hypertensive persons does not appear to increase the risk of uncontrolled blood pressure and may even reduce the risk of death from any cause.
Moderate and habitual consumption of coffee (1-–3 cups / day) does not adversely affect blood pressure in most people, including those with arterial hypertension.