Caffeine is a kind of psychostimulant that naturally exist in foods. The benefits and risks of caffeine depend on the dose. Moreover, the intake of caffeine from dietary sources in China has seldom been assessed. We calculated the dietary caffeine intake of Chinese adult consumers from 2004 to 2018 and analyzed its consumption trends by using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey and the National Food and Beverage Consumption Survey. Caffeine contents in different dietary items were determined by HPLC. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to estimate caffeine intake. Mann-Kendall trend test and linear regression were used to analyze the trend of caffeine consumption. Among 79,173 individuals, 3972 (5%) of the adult Chinese population consumed caffeine between 2004 and 2018. The average caffeine intake was 123 mg/day for male consumers and 116 mg/day for female consumers. The median and P75 caffeine intake raised over the 14 years. Traditional tea leaves, coffee and sodas are the main sources of caffeine intake. Our findings indicate that most Chinese adults consumed caffeine within the safe level (400 mg/day), but the caffeine consumption has shown an increasing trend in recent 14 years.