Beverages are a source of calories and other bioactive constituents but are an understudied aspect of the diet. Different beverages have varying effects on health outcomes.
We created the Healthy Beverage Score (HBS) to characterize participants’ beverage patterns and examined its association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality among individuals with CKD.
We conducted a prospective analysis of 2283 adults aged 21-74 y with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20-70 mL · min-1 · 1.73 m-2 from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Diet was assessed using a 124-item FFQ at visit 1 (2003-2008). The HBS, ranging from 7 to 28 possible points, consisted of 7 components, each scored from 1 to 4 based on rank distribution by quartile, except alcohol, which was based on sex-specific cutoffs. Participants were given more points for higher consumption of low-fat milk and of coffee/tea, for moderate alcohol, and for lower consumption of 100% fruit juice, whole-fat milk, artificially sweetened beverages, and sugar-sweetened beverages. CKD progression, incident CVD, and mortality were ascertained through January 2018. We conducted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.
There were 815 cases of CKD progression, 285 cases of incident CVD, and 725 deaths over a maximum of 14 y of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest tertile of the HBS, participants in the highest tertile had a 25% lower likelihood of CKD progression (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.89; P-trend = 0.001) and a 17% lower likelihood of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69, 1.00; P-trend = 0.04) after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and dietary factors. There was no significant trend for incident CVD.
Among individuals with CKD, a healthier beverage pattern was inversely associated with CKD progression and all-cause mortality. Beverage intake may be an important modifiable target in preventing adverse outcomes for individuals with CKD.