THE LATEST RESEARCH ON COFFEE AND HEALTH
A Nehlig reviewed factors such as age, sex and hormones, liver disease, obesity, smoking and diet and their effect on the metabolism, clearance and pharmacokinetics of caffeine. Genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies, identified several loci critically involved in caffeine consumption and its consequences on sleep, anxiety, and potentially in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Although more research is required to understand caffeine consumption and effects on body functions, this review provides a better picture of how a multiplicity of biologic mechanisms seem to drive levels of caffeine consumption and its effects on the body.
A Nehlig, 2018. Interindividual Differences in Caffeine Metabolism and Factors Driving Caffeine Consumption, Pharmacological Reviews, published online.
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C Xie et al performed a systematic review and dose-responsive meta-analysis of cohort studies to derive a more quantitatively precise estimation of the association between coffee consumption and hypertension risk. Eight articles were identified investigating the risk of hypertension with the level of coffee consumption, including 243,869 individuals and 58,094 incident cases of hypertension. The meta-analysis provided quantitative evidence that coffee consumption is inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in a dose-response manner.
C Xie et al, 2018. Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies, Journal of Human Hypertension, published online.
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In this systematic review and meta-analysis, J L Temple et al reviewed literature to determine the impact of caffeine as a countermeasure to fatigue in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift workers. Although there were no studies that investigated caffeine use and its effects on EMS workers or on patient safety specifically, four of the eight studies identified that in general shift workers showed that caffeine improved psychomotor vigilance, which is important for performance in EMS personnel. The quality of evidence was judged to be low to moderate, however when taken together, these studies demonstrated that caffeine can improve psychomotor performance and vigilance. The meta-analysis concluded that more systematic, randomised studies need to be conducted in EMS personnel and patients and
the risk/benefit ratio of chronic caffeine use in shift workers is currently unknown.
J L Temple et al, 2018. Systematic-Review and Meta-analysis of the Effects of Caffeine in Fatigued Shift Workers: Implications for Emergency Medical Services Personnel, Prehosp Emergency Care, published online.
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L M R Loureiro et al analysed the effect of coffee components on muscle glycogen metabolism. A literature search was conducted according to PRISMA and seven studies were included. They explored the effects of coffee components on various substances and signaling proteins. The findings from the review must be taken with caution due to the limited number of studies on the subject. However, in conclusion, various coffee components had a neutral or positive role in the metabolism of glucose and muscle glycogen, whilst no detrimental effect was described.
L M R Loureiro et al, 2018. Effects of Coffee Components on Muscle Glycogen Recovery: A Systematic Review, International Journal of Sport Nutition and Exercise Metabolism, published online.
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A Lafranconi et al conducted a dose-response meta-analysis in order to summarise the evidence from prospective cohort studies, regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. A total of 21 prospective studies were selected either for dose-response, the highest versus lowest category of consumption or subgroup analysis. The dose-response analysis of 13 prospective studies showed no significant association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk in the non-linear model. However, an inverse relationship was found when the analysis was restricted to post-menopausal women. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day was associated with a 10% reduction in
postmenopausal cancer risk and subgroup analyses showed consistent results for all potential confounding factors examined.
A Lafranconi et al, 2018. Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Prospective Cohort Studies, Nutrients, Volume 10 (2).
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Coffee consumption and inflammation
In this meta-analysis of observational studies, Y Zhang & D Z Zhang aimed to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and serum C-reactive protein levels. A total of nine cross-sectional studies were included in the meta-analysis and the existing evidence suggested that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of serum CRP. However, more well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to elaborate the concerned issues further.
Y Zhang & D Z Zhang, 2018. Is Coffee Consumption Associated with a Lower Level of Serum C-reactive Protein? A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies, International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, published online.
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K Yamagata et al reviewed studies that have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. They found results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. The meta-analysis explores the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.
K Yamagata et al, 2018. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence, Antioxidants (Basel) Volume 7 (2).
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