References

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  1. International Osteoporosis Foundation Fact Sheet. Available at: https://www.iofbonehealth.org/facts-statistics
  2. Osteoporosis in the European Union in 2008: Ten years of progress and ongoing challenges http://abrasso.org.br/boletins/relatorios_iof_2008.pdf
  3. Hernlund E. et al. (2013) Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. A report prepared in collaboration with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA) Arch Osteoporos 8:136
  4. Heaney R.P. (2002) Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. Food Chem Toxicol, 40: 1263-70.
  5. Liu H. et al. (2012) Coffee consumption and risk of fractures: a meta-analysis Arch Med Sci. Nov 9, 2012; 8(5): 776–783.
  6. Li X.I. and Xu J.-H. (2013) Coffee consumption and hip fracture risk: a meta-analysis Journal of Nutritional Science, vol. 2, e23 doi:10.1017/jns.2013.13
  7. Sheng J. et al. (2013) Coffee, tea, and risk of hip fracture: a meta-analysis Osteoporos Int DOI 10.1007/s00198-013-2563-7
  8. Lee D.R. et al. (2014) Coffee Consumption and risk of fractures: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Bone published on line ahead of print
  9. Hallström et al. (2013) Long-term Coffee Consumption in Relation to Fracture Risk and Bone Mineral Density in Women Am J Epidemiol DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwt062
  10. Kara F.M. et al. (2010) Adenosine A1 Receptors Regulate Bone Resorption in Mice. Arthritis & Rheumatism 62, No. 2, pp 534–541
  11. Cashman K. (2007) Diet, Nutrition and Bone Health. J Nutr, 137(11):25075-25125
  12. Office of the Surgeon General (2004) ‘Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General’. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45513/.
  13. EFSA (2015) Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Caffeine, EFSA Journal, 13(5):4102.

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