What have dose response studies shown us?

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A number of studies and reviews suggest that the relationship between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes is dose dependent:

  • A dose response analysis, from a 2009 systematic review, concluded that every additional cup of coffee, up to 6-8 cups per day, was associated with a 5-10% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes; and that drinking 3-4 cups of coffee per day was associated with an approximate 25% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, compared to consuming none or less than 2 cups per day3.
  • A meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested a 12% reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes for every additional two cups of coffee per day, and a 14% reduction for every 200mg increment of caffeine per day. This review also suggested that the effect was stronger in women than men6.
  • Another 2014 systematic review and dose response analysis concluded that the risk of diabetes was reduced by a percentage of, respectively: 8, 15, 21, 25, 29 and 33% for 1-6 cups of coffee per day7.
  • A further study in 2014 concluded that participants who increased coffee intake by more than one cup per day over a 4 year period had a 12% lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whilst those who decreased coffee consumption by one cup per day had a 18% greater risk of type 2 diabetes26.
  • And, more recently, a 2018 meta-analysis also suggested that the risk of type 2 diabetes decreased by 6% for each cup-per-day increase in coffee consumption4.

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