Background information

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It is widely accepted that any effects of coffee consumption on reproductive health are likely to be linked to caffeine rather than to coffee consumption per se. Hence the majority of the published work focuses on the effects of caffeine, not coffee, consumption.

An epidemiological review of the effects of caffeine on reproductive health published in 2010 concluded that the research available did not suggest any adverse effect of caffeine on reproductive or perinatal outcomes1. However the authors did highlight a number of confounding factors including the effect of pregnancy symptoms and smoking that could influence results.  A further 2011 review of in utero caffeine exposure concluded that moderate intakes of beverages and foods containing caffeine did not increase the risks of congenital malformations, miscarriage or growth retardation13.

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