Several published studies have examined the association of coffee consumption with atrial fibrillation (AF) risk, but their findings are still controversial. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of incident AF.
We systematically retrieved the PubMed and Embase databases until October 2021 for pertinent studies that reported the association of coffee consumption (caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee) with AF risk. A cubic spline random-effects model was used to fit the potential dose-response curve. The effect estimates were expressed as adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs.
A total of 10 prospective studies (11 cohorts) involving 30,169 AF events and 723,825 participants were included. In the dose-response analysis, there was a linear inverse association between coffee intake and risk of AF although not statistically significant (P non-linearity = 0.25). Compared with participants with no coffee consumption, the RRs (95% CI) of AF risk estimated directly from the dose-response curve were 1.01 (0.98-1.03), 1.00 (0.97-1.04), 0.99 (0.92-1.02), 0.95 (0.89-1.01), 0.94 (0.87-1.01), 0.89 (0.79-1.02), and 0.87 (0.76-1.02) for 1-7 cups of coffee per day, respectively. One cup per day increased in coffee consumption was associated with a 2% reduced risk of AF (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-1.00, P = 0.02).
Our evidence from this meta-analysis suggested that coffee consumption had a trend toward reducing the risk of AF in a dose-response manner. Further studies could be conducted to reinforce our findings.