To elucidate the association of coffee and bone health would help fracture risk reduction via dietary intervention. Although those who had higher coffee consumption were less likely to have osteoporosis, the associations between coffee consumption and fracture risk need further investigations with better study designs.
The associations between coffee consumption and the risk of osteoporosis and fracture remain inconclusive. We aimed to better quantify these associations by conducting meta-analyses of observational studies.
Relevant studies were systematically searched on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Embase Database up to November 25, 2021. The odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was pooled and a dose-response analysis was performed.
Four studies with 7114 participants for osteoporosis and thirteen studies with 391,956 participants for fracture incidence were included in the meta-analyses. High versus low coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis [pooled OR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.65-0.92)], while it was non-significantly associated with fracture incidence [pooled OR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.67-1.05) at hip and 0.89 (0.42-1.36) at non-hip]. A non-linear association between the level of coffee consumption and hip fracture incidence was shown (P = 0.004). The pooled RR (95% CI) of hip fracture risk in those who consumed 1, 2-3, 4, and ≥ 9 cups of coffee per day was 0.92 (0.87-0.97), 0.89 (0.83-0.95), 0.91 (0.85-0.98), and 1.10 (0.76-1.59), respectively. The significance in the association between coffee consumption and the hip fracture incidence decreased in those studies that had larger sample size, higher quality, and more adjustments.
A dose-dependent relationship may exist between coffee consumption and hip fracture incidence. The effect of high versus low coffee consumption was influenced by study designs. Further studies with dedicated designs are needed to confirm the independent effects of coffee consumption on bone health.