Other coffee & health research

X-Y Cai et al, 2022. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and mortality of chronic kidney disease: results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2014, Clin Kidney Journal, Volume 15 (4).

April 4, 2022


The relationship between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and the risk of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. We evaluated the association between SSB intake and subsequent overall mortality in CKD patients.

We included data from 3996 CKD patients who participated in the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). SSB intake was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall, grouped as none, >0 to <1 serving/day, 1 to <2 servings/day and ≥2 servings/day. After adjusting for demographic variables, lifestyle, diet and comorbidities, Cox proportional risk regressions were applied to analyze the associations between the daily intake of SSBs as well as added sugar from beverages and all-cause mortality.

In the whole research population, the median age at baseline was 67 years, 22% were Black and 54% were female. A total of 42% had stage 3 CKD. During an average follow-up period of 8.3 years, a sum of 1137 (28%) deaths from all causes was recorded. The confounder-adjusted risk of mortality was associated with an increase of 1 serving/day of SSBs, with all-cause mortality of 1.18 [95% confidence interval (95% CI)1.08-1.28], and intakes of increased 20-g added sugar/1000 kcal of total energy per day were associated with all-cause mortality of 1.14 (1.05-1.24). Equivalently substituting 1 serving/day of SSBs with unsweetened coffee [HR (95% CI) 0.82 (0.74-0.91)], unsweetened tea [HR (95% CI) 0.86 (0.76-0.98)], plain water [HR (95% CI) 0.79 (0.71-0.88)], or non- or low-fat milk [HR (95% CI) 0.75 (0.60-0.93)] were related to a 14-25% reduced risk of all-cause mortality.

Findings suggest that in the CKD population, increased SSB intake was associated with a higher risk of mortality and indicated a stratified association with dose. Plain water and unsweetened coffee/tea might be possible alternatives for SSBs to avert untimely deaths.


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