Background & aims:
Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aim to understand lifestyle habits of NAFLD patients, compare across Asian regions and identify area of deficiency.
In the multi-centre CAP-Asia study, we collected clinical data and lifestyle habit data of NAFLD patients from Singapore, mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Malaysia. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
555 patients were included in the final analysis (mean age 54.5±11.2 years, 54.1% male, median liver stiffness 6.7 kPa). More patients from mainland China (27.4%) and Taipei (25.0%) were smokers. Modest drinking was more common in Taiwan (25.0%) and Hong Kong (18.2%); only 1.3% had binge drinking. Majority of patients drank coffee (64.0%) and tea (80.2%), with varying amounts and durations in different regions. Soft drinks consumption was most common in Singapore (62.2%) and Malaysia (57.7%). Only 29.7% of patients met the Physical Activity Guidelines Recommendations, with no major differences across regions. Patients with liver stiffness <10 kPa were more likely to report any vigorous activity, and sitting time was an independent factor associated with high controlled attenuation parameter. Tea and coffee consumption were independently associated with high controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness, respectively.
Despite some heterogeneity, unhealthy lifestyle and physical inactivity are common across Asian regions. Patients with liver stiffness <10 kPa were more likely to report any vigorous activity. Healthcare providers may use the comparative data to identify areas of deficiency.