Clinical studies suggest increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and diabetes among the elderly. Meanwhile, some food compounds, such as coffee, can also have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and CVD risk factors in the elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
This cross-sectional study was performed during 2017 on 300 elderly people above 60 years of age with T2DM in Isfahan, Iran. Dietary assessment was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. Coffee consumption was classified into three groups including < 1, 1-3, and > 3 cups/day. Partial correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between CVD risk factors and usual coffee consumption.
The mean age and body mass index of participants were 70.04 ± 4.87 years and 24.74 ± 3.34 kg/m2 respectively. Coffee consumption had a significant inverse relationship with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the elderly with T2DM (r: – 0.117, 0.134; p: 0.046, 0.022). Triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) had a significant positive relationship with coffee consumption levels (r: 0.636, 0.128; p: 0.028, 0.029). These results were obtained after controlling for potential confounders.
Increasing coffee consumption was linked to improved status of some CVD risk factors including FPG, HDL-C, and DBP in the elderly with T2DM. Nevertheless, increasing coffee consumption was also associated with higher TG level and had no significant effect on other risk factors. Further studies are required to confirm these results.