The Relationship Between Coffee Intake, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk, and Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control, in Tabuk city, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a Case-control Study
The study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee intake, obstructive sleep apnea risk (OSA), and glycemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus.
There were 110 patients with diabetes and 96 healthy control subjects (matched for age and sex) attending a diabetes centre in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia during the period from June 2018-October 2019. Stop-Bang questionnaire was used to assess OSA risk, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale to investigate daytime sleepiness. OSA risk and daytime sleepiness were higher among patients with diabetes compared to controls (4.34 ± 1.61 vs. 2.86 ± 1.24, and 8.31 ± 4.40 vs. 6.39 ± 3.70 respectively, P < 0.5), while coffee consumption was not (4.64 ± 3.95 vs. 3.45 ± 3.06, P > 0.05). Women with diabetes were younger with short duration since the diagnosis of diabetes and consumed less coffee compared to men, P < 0.5. A negative correlation was found between coffee consumption and the duration of diabetes, while no correlation was found between coffee intake, the glycated hemoglobin, OSA risk, sex, and daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness and OSA risk were commoners among patients with diabetes, they were not correlated with coffee consumption which was negatively correlated with the duration since diabetes diagnosis. Further larger multi-center studies investigating coffee intake among patients newly diagnosed with diabetes are recommended.
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