Background & aim
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with high blood pressure (BP). However, whether coffee consumption interacts with the genetic variants related to BP is yet unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether the association between genetic risk core (GRS) and blood pressure was modified by usual coffee consumption.
Data were from the ‘Health Survey of Sao Paulo ~ ’ a cross-sectional population-based survey, among 533 participants aged 20 years or older. Coffee consumption was estimated by two 24-h dietary recalls and categorized into <1, 1e3, and >3 cups/day. The GRS was calculated based on SNPs in previous GWAS [CYP1A1/CYP1A2 (rs2470893, rs2472297); CPLX3/ULK3 (rs6495122); MTHFR (rs17367504)]. Multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to estimate the associations between GRS with high BP, and both, high systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP); and the multiplicative interaction term between the GRS and coffee consumption were tested by including in the models.
Higher GRS independently contributed to higher probability of elevated BP, SBP and DBP in this population (OR ¼ 1.85, 95%CI ¼ 1.19e2.87; OR ¼ 2.30, 95%CI ¼ 1.32e4.01 and OR ¼ 1.66, 95%CI ¼ 1.10 e2.51; respectively). Moreover, there were a significant interaction effects for coffee consumption and GRS on the high BP, SBP and DBP. Individuals with higher BP increasing alleles in the GRS had a significantly high BP (OR ¼ 5.09, 95%CI ¼ 1.32e19.7), and both elevated SBP and DBP (OR ¼ 2.14, 95% CI ¼ 1.12e4.11; OR ¼ 3.54, 95%CI ¼ 1.17e10.75), among those with high coffee consumption (>3 cups coffee/day).
Consumption of coffee could interact with genetic predisposition in relation to BP. Thus, the GRS for high BP is modified by coffee consumption. Individuals with greater GRS appeared to have high BP associated with higher coffee consumption, highlighting the particular importance to reduce coffee intake in individuals genetically predisposed to this cardiovascular disease risk factor.