Inconsistent results for coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC) risk have been shown in epidemiological studies. This research aims to increase the understanding of the association between coffee consumption and BC risk by bringing together worldwide case-control studies on this topic.
Data were collected from 13 case-control comprising of 5,911 cases and 16,172 controls. Pooled multivariate odds ratios (ORs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using multilevel logistic regression models. Furthermore, linear dose-response relationships were examined using fractional polynomial models.
No association of BC risk was observed with coffee consumption among smokers. However, after adjustment for age, gender, and smoking, the risk was significantly increased for never smokers (ever vs. never coffee consumers: ORmodel2 1.30, 95% CI 1.06-1.59; heavy (> 4 cups/day) coffee consumers vs. never coffee consumers: ORmodel2 1.52, 95% CI 1.18-1.97, p trend = 0.23). In addition, dose-response analyses, in both the overall population and among never smokers, also showed a significant increased BC risk for coffee consumption of more than four cups per day. Among smokers, a significant increased BC risk was shown only after consumption of more than six cups per day.
This research suggests that positive associations between coffee consumption and BC among never smokers but not smokers.