Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common dementia worldwide, remains without an effective treatment to this day despite intensive research conducted during the last decades. In this context, researchers have turned their attention towards the prevention of this pathology, focusing on early detection and better control of the most important risk factors, concomitantly with trying to find potentially protective factors that may delay the onset of AD. From the multitude of factors studied, coffee (especially its main component, caffeine) is a current interesting research topic, taking into consideration the contradictory results of recent years' studies. On the one hand, much of the evidence from fundamental research suggests the potentially protective trait of caffeine in AD, while other data mainly from human studies lean toward no correlation or even suggesting that caffeine is a veritable risk factor for dementia. Given the methodological heterogeneity of the studies, this review aims to bring new evidence regarding this topic and to try to clearly establish a correlation between the two entities. Thus, in the first part, the authors make a clear distinction between the effects of coffee and the effects of caffeine in AD, presenting a rich basis of clinical trials on both animal models and the human subject. Subsequently, the main pathophysiological mechanisms that would explain the action of caffeine in the etiopathogenesis of AD are reviewed. Finally, the role of computational models is presented, having beneficial impact on both better understanding of the disease mechanism and the development of new therapeutic approaches for AD prevention.