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Coffee & Health
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S Nouri-Madj et al, 2022. Coffee and caffeine intake in relation to symptoms of psychological disorders among adults, Public Health Nutrition, published online

January 2, 2022


Objective: Given that there is an inconsistency in the findings related to the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and symptoms of psychological disorders, we performed a cross-sectional analysis to examine the association between coffee and caffeine intake and symptoms of psychological disorders among adults.

Design: In this cross-sectional study, 3362 participants were included. We assessed the coffee and caffeine intakes using as elf-completed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using HADS and GHQ screening tools.

Results: The mean age of participants in this study was36.2±7.8 years. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals who consumed coffee weekly or more had a significantly lower odds of symptoms of depression (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.96) and symptoms of anxiety (OR: 0.57; 95%CI: 0.34-0.95) compared with those who did not consume coffee. However, no significant association was found between coffee intake and symptoms of psychological distress (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.68-1.42). No significant relationship was found between caffeine intake and odds of symptoms of depression (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.75-1.16), symptoms of anxiety (OR: 0.90; 95%CI: 0.67-1.20), and symptoms of psychological distress (OR: 1.13; 95% CI:0.89-1.42).

Conclusion: Compared with lack of coffee intake, weekly or more coffee consumption might be correlated with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

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