Over the past 15 years, numerous clinical, epidemiological and physiopathological articles have been published on rosacea. There is now increasing evidence that rosacea is an inflammatory disease characterised by abnormal innate immune response, major vascular changes, and increased colonisation by Demodex mites, along with a genetic predisposition and multiple external aggravating factors. It is thus possible to define treatment targets and possible treatments: 1) permanent vascular changes (medical and instrumental treatments); 2) flushing (betablockers, botulinum toxin); 3) innate immunity (antibiotics, nonspecific antioxidants and anti-inflammatory molecules); 4) a neurovascular component (analgesics, antidepressants); 5) Demodex (antiparasitic drugs); 6) microbiome; 7) skin barrier impairment (cosmetics and certain systemic drugs); 8) sebaceous glands (isotretinoin, surgery); 9) environmental factors (alcohol, coffee, UV exposure). Treatment recommendations are now available in many countries and benefit from the new phenotypic approach to rosacea, in which every sign or symptom is considered separately rather than having to deal with overlapping subtypes. Since the 2000s, many good quality clinical trials have been published in the field of rosacea and many others are still ongoing. Rosacea is a complex disease involving many different mechanisms and with numerous possible treatments, but there are still some important unmet needs with regard to optimal care.