Coffee is a major dietary source of polyphenols. Previous research found that coffee had a protective effect on periodontal disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether coffee extract and its primary phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, affect the growth and protease activity of a periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis).
Coffee extract and chlorogenic acid were prepared by a two-fold serial dilution. The turbid metric test and plate count method were used to examine the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid on P. gingivalis. The time-kill assay was used to measure changes in the viability of P. gingivalis after exposure to chlorogenic acid for 0-24 h. The protease activity of P. gingivalis was analyzed using the optical density of a chromogenic substrate.
As a result, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorogenic acid was 4 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 16 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid at concentrations above MIC resulted in a longer-lasting inhibitory effect on P. gingivalis viability and significantly reduced associated protease activity. The coffee extract showed antibacterial activity as observed by the disk diffusion test, whereas these inhibitory effects were not affected by different roast degrees of coffee.
Collectively, our novel findings indicate that chlorogenic acid not only has antimicrobial activity but also reduced the protease activity of P. gingivalis. In addition, coffee extract inhibits the proliferation of P. gingivalis, which may partly be attributed to the effect of chlorogenic acid.