Among the various hip fracture predictors explored to date, modifiable risk factors warrant special consideration, since they present promising targets for preventative measures. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess various modifiable risk factors.
Material and methods:
We searched four online databases in September 2017. We included studies that reported on modifiable lifestyle risk factors for sustaining fragility hip fractures. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The inclusion criteria consisted of (1) adult patients with osteoporotic hip fracture, (2) original study, (3) availability of full text articles in English, and (4) report of a modifiable lifestyle risk factor.
Thirty-five studies, containing 1,508,366 subjects in total, were included in this study. The modifiable risk factors that were significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fracture were the following: weight < 58 kg (128 lbs) (pooled OR 4.01, 95% CI 1.62-9.90), underweight body mass index (BMI) (< 18.5) (pooled OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.82-4.39), consumption of ≥ 3 cups of coffee daily (pooled OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04-4.97), inactivity (pooled OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.77), weight loss (pooled OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.32-2.68), consumption of ≥ 27 g (approx. > 2 standard drinks) alcohol per day (pooled OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.12-2.13), and being a current smoker (pooled OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.85). Conversely, two factors were significantly associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture: obese BMI (> 30) (pooled OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.99) and habitual tea drinking (pooled OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66-0.80).
Modifiable factors may be utilized clinically to provide more effective lifestyle interventions for at risk populations. We found that low weight and underweight BMI carried the highest risk, followed by high coffee consumption, inactivity, weight loss, and high daily alcohol consumption.