Background & aims:
Recent evidence suggests that moderate coffee intake is associated with multiple health benefits, including lower risk of obesity, sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. However, to date, no study has evaluated these associations in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of habitual coffee consumption with obesity, sarcopenia, bone mineral density and CVD risk factors in KTR.
This prospective 2 years-follow-up study included 170 KTR (59% men) aged 49.5 (42.0-57.0) years. At baseline participants were submitted to the following evaluations: clinical, laboratorial, dietary intake (including coffee), muscle strength, anthropometric and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After two years 163 KTR were re-evaluated by anthropometry, BIA and muscle strength. Sarcopenia was defined according to EWGSOP2. Risk factors for CVD were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and hyperhomcysteinemia. Participants were stratified according to coffee intake: 0 or 1 time/day (Gr0-1) and 2 or 3 times/day (Gr2-3).
The median coffee consumption was 200 (150-250)mL/day and 112 (71-155)mL/1000 kcal/day. At baseline, Gr2-3 vs. Gr0-1 exhibited significantly higher values of waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and presented a higher odds ratio for central obesity according to WHtR (2.68; 95%CI:1.19-6.02; p = 0.02) after adjustment for confounders. Coffee consumption (mL/1000 kcal/day) showed, even after adjustment for confounders, (1) a positive association with all parameters of body adiposity (anthropometry, BIA and DXA) and (2) a negative association with muscle quality index. After two years, coffee intake (mL/1000 kcal/day) at baseline presented a positive correlation with changes in fat mass (kg) by BIA (r = 0.22, p = 0.01) after adjustment for confounders.
This study suggests that in KTR, higher coffee consumption is associated with increased adiposity, specially, central adiposity and lower muscle quality, but is not related with the other evaluated parameters.