In recent years, there has been considerable research showing that coffee consumption seems to be beneficial to human health, as it contains a mixture of different bioactive compounds such as chlorogenic acids, caffeic acid, alkaloids, diterpenes and polyphenols. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are debilitating, and non-curable diseases associated with impaired central, peripheral and muscle nervous systems. Several studies demonstrate that neuroinflammation mediated by glial cells-such as microglia and astrocytes-is a critical factor contributing to neurodegeneration that causes the dysfunction of brain homeostasis, resulting in a progressive loss of structure, function, and number of neuronal cells. This happens over time and leads to brain damage and physical impairment. The most known chronic NDs are represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD). According to epidemiological studies, regular coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize the latest research about the potential effects of caffeine in neurodegenerative disorders prevention and discuss the role of controlled caffeine delivery systems in maintaining high plasma caffeine concentrations for an extended time.