Caffeine, a simple purine alkaloid with the proper chemical name 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione, is an abundant compound contained in beverages like coffee, food and drugs. It interacts with various pathways of which antagonism of adenosine receptors is the most significant but the other physiological pathways can be influenced by caffeine as well. Interaction with glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission pathways, competition with other substrates on cytochrome P450, non-competitive inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, blocking of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and competitive inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase can be mentioned. Because of caffeine availability as a part of foods, beverages and drugs, it has practical relevance even if the effect is weak. Intake of coffee containing edibles for a long period or even for a substantial part of life makes caffeine´s impact significant. Low acute and chronic toxicity of caffeine is another important specification. The discoveries from the last few years point to the fact that caffeine would interfere with the progression of some age-related neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and dementia with Lewy bodies. In this review article, the recent findings about caffeine´s impact on neurodegenerative diseases are presented and important facts about the caffeine effect including the substantial discoveries are described.