Evidence on the associations of lifestyle factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the associations of modifiable lifestyle factors with VTE in women and men.
We used data from two cohorts comprising 30,137 women and 36,193 men aged over 45 years and free of cancer and VTE. Information on lifestyle factors was collected in 1997 via a self-administrated questionnaire. VTE cases were ascertained by linkage with the National Patient Register until the end of 2019.
During a mean of 16.9-years follow-up, 1784 women and 2043 men were diagnosed with VTE. Compared with individuals with <10 min/day of physical activity, the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) of VTE were 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58, 0.79) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67, 0.92) in women and men with >60 min/day, respectively. Compared with individuals with the lowest adherence to a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, the multivariable HRs of VTE were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75, 0.99) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80, 1.00) for women and men with the highest adherence. In women, the multivariable HRs of VTE were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.03, 1.29) for past smoker and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.14, 1.45) for current smoker compared with never smoker. Alcohol and coffee consumption were not associated with VTE.
This study suggests that being physically active and adhering to a healthy diet may lower the risk of VTE in women and men. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with VTE in women.