BACKGROUND & AIMS:
In normotensive and hypertensive individuals, blood pressure (BP) rises acutely during a few hours following coffee or caffeine consumption. However, the effect of habitual coffee consumption on BP and BP control is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the association of habitual coffee consumption on 24-h BP and BP control among older adults with hypertension.
Data were taken from the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA), a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 among 1164 individuals aged ≥63 years. Habitual coffee consumption was assessed with a validated diet history. BP was recorded by 24-h ambulatory monitoring. Ambulatory hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 130/80 mm Hg or being under antihypertensive treatment, and uncontrolled BP was deemed as BP ≥ 130/80 mm Hg among hypertensives. Analyses were performed with linear and logistic regressions adjusted for the main confounders, including diet, time since diagnosis of hypertension and the number of antihypertensive drugs.
Among the 715 hypertensive participants, those consuming ≥3 cups of coffee/day showed higher 24-h systolic BP (beta: 3.25 mm Hg, p value = 0.04) and diastolic BP (beta: 2.24 mm Hg, p value = 0.02) than non-coffee drinkers. Compared to non-coffee drinkers, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for uncontrolled BP among those consuming 1, 2, and ≥3 cups of coffee/day were, respectively: 1.95 (1.15-3.30), 1.41 (0.75-2.68), and 2.55 (1.28-5.09); p for trend = 0.05. The association was similar among individuals who were smokers, had excess weight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or hypercholesterolemia. No association was found between coffee consumption and having a non-dipper BP pattern (<10% nocturnal decline in BP) among hypertensives.
Habitual coffee consumption was associated with uncontrolled BP in a hypertensive older population.