Female Fertility and the Nutritional Approach: The Most Essential Aspects
Infertility is an increasing problem that affects couples attempting pregnancy. A growing body of evidence points to a link between diet and female fertility. In fact, data show that a diet high in trans fats, refined carbohydrates, and added sugars can negatively affect fertility. Conversely, a diet based on the Mediterranean dietary patterns, i.e., rich in dietary fiber, omega-3 (ɷ-3) fatty acids, plant-based protein, and vitamins and minerals, has a positive impact on female fertility. An unhealthy diet can disrupt microbiota composition, and it is worth investigating whether the composition of the gut microbiota correlates with the frequency of infertility. There is a lack of evidence to exclude gluten from the diet of every woman trying to become pregnant in the absence of celiac disease. Furthermore, there are no data concerning adverse effects of alcohol on female fertility, and caffeine consumption in the recommended amounts also does not seem to affect fertility. On the other hand, phytoestrogens presumably have a positive influence on female fertility. Nevertheless, there are many unanswered questions with regard to supplementation in order to enhance fertility. It has been established that women of childbearing age should supplement folic acid. Moreover, most people experience vitamin D and iodine deficiency; thus, it is vital to control their blood concentrations and consider supplementation if necessary. Therefore, since diet and lifestyle seem to be significant factors influencing fertility, it is valid to expand knowledge in this area.
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