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Coffee & Health
Bone health

Coffee consumption and caffeine intake in relation to risk of fractures

April 28, 2022


Conflicting reports are available about the association of coffee or caffeine intake and risk of fracture. We performed the current updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of coffee consumption and caffeine intake and risk of fracture to quantify this association.

Materials and methods:
PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus, Cochrane database were searched up to July 2021. Random-effects model or fixed-effects model was used to pool the study-specific effect sizes (ESs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Dose-response relationship was examined using linear and non-linear dose-response analyses. The certainty of evidence was assessed using NutriGrade tool.

Out of 22 eligible studies included in the meta-analysis, 15 had cohort and 7 had case-control design. We found no significant association between coffee consumption and risk of fracture, either based on pooling cohort (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.12; I2 = 71.4%, Pheterogeneity < 0.01) or case-control studies (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.46; I2 = 49.0%, Pheterogeneity=0.08). In the subgroup analysis of cohort studies, we observed that higher coffee intake was inversely associated with risk of fracture in men (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.94). In addition, a positive association was seen between coffee consumption and risk of fracture in studies with less than 12 years of follow-up (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.27). With regard to caffeine intake, a statistically significant positive association was seen with risk of fracture (RR: 1.15; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.23; I2=26.6%, n = 8). In the dose-response analysis, we found that each additional 100 mg caffeine intake was marginally associated with 2% greater risk of fracture (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1 to 1.05; I2= 70.3%, n = 6).

High coffee consumption was protectively associated with risk of fracture in men, while caffeine intake was positive associated with risk.

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