It remains unclear whether caffeinated beverages could have deleterious renal effects in elderly population with underlying comorbid conditions. We investigated the associations between coffee, tea, or caffeine intake and 1-year changes in glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a large Spanish cohort of overweight/obese elderly with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This prospective analysis includes 5851 overweight/obese adults (55-75 years) with MetS from the PREDIMED-Plus study. We assessed coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption from a validated food-frequency questionnaire and creatinine-based eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Multivariate-adjusted regression models were applied to test associations between baseline coffee, tea, or caffeine intake and 1-year eGFR changes. Caffeinated coffee (> 2 cups/day) and tea (at least 1 cup/day) drinkers had 0.88 and 0.93 mL/min/1.73 m2 greater eGFR decrease respectively, compared to those with less than 1 cup/day of coffee consumption or non-tea drinkers. Furthermore, caffeinated coffee consumption of > 2 cups/day was associated with 1.19-fold increased risk of rapid eGFR decline > 3 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI 1.01-1.41). Similarly, individuals in the highest (median, 51.2 mg/day) tertile of caffeine intake had a 0.87 mL/min/1.73 m2 greater eGFR decrease. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with eGFR changes. In conclusion, higher consumption of caffeinated coffee, tea, and caffeine was associated with a greater 1-year eGFR decline in overweight/obese adults with MetS.