Combined effect of coffee consumption and cigarette smoking on serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and lipid profile in young male: a cross-sectional study
To investigate the associations of coffee consumption and/or smoking on certain clinical outcomes including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), vitamin B12, and folic acid in a population of young healthy men.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amman, Jordan, over 4 months. Participants were approached for study participation and asked to fill a questionnaire about their anthropometric information, habitual smoking, and coffee consumption during the last 3 months. Their fasting blood samples were taken to measure TC and LDL-C.
Healthy male participants (n=117) in the age range of 18 to 26 years were recruited. Mean serum TC was higher in heavy coffee consumers (C++) group (≥3 cups/day) with or without smoking (M= 179.9±34.59 mg/dL and 195.94±23.69 mg/dL) in comparison with moderate coffee consumers (C+) group (1-2 cups/day) (M= 158.1±24.82 mg/dL and 177.23±34.17 mg/dL), and the mean level was higher in subjects who were coffee consumers only than smokers who were coffee consumers. LDL-C levels were higher in participants who were coffee consumers (M= 103.06±34.82mg/dL and 118.06±19.31 mg/dL) than smokers who were coffee consumers (M= 88.6±22.40 mg/dL and 108.26±37.57 mg/dL). No significant difference was noted regarding HDL-C, vitamin B12, and folic acid.
Our findings showed that heavy coffee consumption was more associated with hyperlipidemia than cigarette smoking. Accordingly, we conclude that moderate coffee consumption may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases or their consequences in male.
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