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Coffee & Health
Mental performance

Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies

G Grosso et al, 2015
Mol Nutr Food Res, published online ahead of print
November 2, 2015



The aim of the study was to systematically review and analyze results from observational studies on coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption and association or risk of depression.


Embase and Pubmed databases were searched from inception to June 2015 for observational studies reporting the odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of depression by coffee/tea/caffeine consumption. Random-effects models, subgroup and dose-response analyses were performed. Twelve studies with 23 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, accounting for a total of 346,913 individuals and 8146 cases of depression. Compared to individuals with lower coffee consumption, those with higher intakes had pooled RR of depression of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.91). Dose-response effect suggests a non-linear J-shaped relation between coffee consumption and risk of depression with a peak of protective effect for 400 ml/d. A borderline non-significant association between tea consumption and risk of depression was found (RR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.01) while significant results were found only for analysis of prospective studies regarding caffeine consumption (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.93).


This study suggests a protective effect of coffee and, partially, of tea and caffeine on risk of depression.

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