Studies have investigated the associations of coffee and tea with mammographic breast density (MBD) in premenopausal women with inconsistent results. We analyzed data from 375 premenopausal women who attended a screening mammogram at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO in 2016, and stratified the analyses by race (non-Hispanic White (NHW) vs. Black/African American). Participants self-reported the number of servings of coffee, caffeinated tea, and decaffeinated tea they consumed. Volpara software was used to determine volumetric percent density (VPD), dense volume (DV), and non-dense volume (NDV). We used generalized linear regression models to quantify the associations of coffee and tea intake with MBD measures. Coffee: ≥1 time/day (β = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.93–1.21; p-trend = 0.61) and caffeinated tea: ≥1 time/day (β = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.88–1.17; p-trend = 0.61) were not associated with VPD. Decaffeinated tea (≥1 time/week) was positively associated with VPD in NHW women (β = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.06–1.39) but not in African American women (β = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.73–1.17; p-interaction = 0.02). Coffee (≥1 time/day) was positively associated with DV in African American women (β = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.11–2.07) but not in NHW women (β = 1.10; 95% CI = 0.95–1.29; p-interaction = 0.02). Our findings do not support associations of coffee and caffeinated tea intake with VPD in premenopausal women. Positive associations of decaffeinated tea with VPD, with suggestions of effect modification by race, require confirmation in larger studies with diverse study populations.