Coffee phenolic phytochemicals suppress colon cancer metastasis by targeting MEK and TOPK
Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancers, including colon cancer, but the molecular mechanisms and target(s) underlying the chemopreventive effects of coffee and its active ingredient(s) remain unknown. Based on serving size or daily units, coffee contains larger amounts of phenolic phytochemicals than tea or red wine. Coffee or chlorogenic acid inhibited CT-26 colon cancer cell-induced lung metastasis by blocking phosphorylation of ERKs. Coffee or caffeic acid strongly suppressed mitogen-activated MEK1 and TOPK activities and bound directly to either MEK1 or TOPK in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Coffee or caffeic acid, but not caffeine, inhibited ERKs phosphorylation, AP-1, and NF-κB transactivation, and subsequently inhibited TPA-, EGF- and H-Ras-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells. Coffee consumption was also associated with a significant attenuation of ERKs phosphorylation in colon cancer patients. These results suggest that coffee and caffeic acid target MEK1 and TOPK to suppress colon cancer metastasis and neoplastic cell transformation.
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