Coffee Drinking and Colorectal Cancer Risk: An Evaluation Based on Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis among the Japanese Population
It remains unclear whether coffee drinking is associated with colorectal cancer risk. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies on this issue among the Japanese population.
Original data were obtained from MEDLINE searches using PubMed or from searches of the ‘Ichushi’ database, complemented with manual searches. Meta-analysis was performed by using the random effects model to estimate the summary relative risk with 95% confidence interval according to the study design. The final judgment was made based on a consensus of the research group members with consideration for both epidemiological evidence and biological plausibility.
We identified five cohort studies and nine case-control studies. Of these, one cohort study reported a strong inverse association (in women only), whereas three case-control studies reported a strong inverse association with colon or rectal cancer. In meta-analysis, high consumption of coffee was not appreciably associated with colorectal cancer risk among cohort studies, whereas it was associated with significantly lower risk of colorectal or colon cancer among case-control studies. The summary relative risk/odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest categories of coffee consumption was 0.95 (0.77-1.17) and 0.78 (0.65-0.95) for cohort and case-control studies, respectively.
The evidence is insufficient to support that coffee drinking increases or decreases the risk of colorectal cancer among the Japanese population.
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