The association between coffee consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes may vary by genetic variants. Our study addresses the question of whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes is related to the consumption of coffee and whether this relationship is modified by polymorphisms related to type 2 diabetes. We performed a pooled analysis of four Korean prospective studies that included 71,527 participants; median follow-up periods ranged between 2 and 13 years. All participants had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using logistic regression models. The ORs were combined using a fixed or random effects model depending on the heterogeneity across the studies. Compared with 0 to <0.5 cups/day of coffee consumption, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.98, p for trend = 0.01) for ≥3 cups/day of coffee consumption. We did not observe significant interactions by five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to type 2 diabetes (CDKAL1 rs7756992, CDKN2A/B rs10811661, KCNJ11 rs5215, KCNQ1 rs163184, and PEPD rs3786897) in the association between coffee and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We found that coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes.