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Coffee & Health
Life expectancy

Coffee Consumption and the Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Korean Population

S A Kim et al, 2021.
J Acad Nutr Diet,published online.
April 27, 2021



There is a dearth of information regarding the association between coffee consumption and its health effects with respect to mortality among Korean people.


The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality risks in the Korean population.


This prospective cohort study had a median follow-up period of 9.1 years.


In total, 173,209 participants aged 40 years and older from the Health Examinees study were enrolled between 2004 and 2013. The analytic sample included 110,920 participants without diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or cancer at baseline who could be linked with their death information.

Main outcome measures:

Deaths of participants until December 31, 2018 were ascertained using the death certificate database of the National Statistical Office. Cause of death was classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision.

Statistical analyses performed:

Participants were categorized according to the amount and type of coffee consumed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95%CI of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality, such as CVD and cancer mortality.


Compared with nonconsumers of coffee, participants who consumed > 3 cups/day had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). Participants who consumed ≤1 cup/day and 1 to 3 cups/day had a reduced risk of CVD mortality (≤1 cup/day: HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; 1 to 3 cups/day: HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96).


This study provides evidence that greater coffee consumption is associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality and moderate coffee consumption (approximately 3 cups/day) is associated with a decreased risk of CVD mortality, regardless of the type of coffee, in a Korean population.

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