Coffee consumption and mortality in women with cardiovascular disease
Coffee is commonly consumed among populations of all ages and conditions. The few studies that have examined the association between coffee consumption and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have obtained conflicting results.
The objective was to assess the association between filtered caffeinated coffee consumption and all-cause and CVD mortality during up to 24 y of follow-up in women with CVD from the Nurses’ Health Study.
The Nurses’ Health Study included 11,697 women. Coffee consumption was first assessed in 1980 with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then repeatedly every 2–4 y. Cumulative consumption was calculated with all available FFQs from the diagnosis of CVD to the end of the follow-up in 2004 to assess long-term effects. In addition, the most recent coffee measurement was related to mortality in the subsequent 2 y to assess shorter-term effects. Analyses were performed by using Cox regression models.
We documented 1159 deaths, of which 579 were due to CVD. The relative risks (RRs) of all-cause mortality across categories of cumulative coffee consumption [,1 cup (240 mL or 8 oz)/mo, 1 cup/mo to 4 cups/wk, 5–7 cups/wk, 2–3 cups/d, and 4 cups/d] were 1, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.27), 1.13 (0.95, 1.36), 1.01 (0.86,1.18), and 1.18 (0.89, 1.56), respectively (P for trend = 0.91). The RRs of CVD mortality across the same categories of coffee intake were 1, 0.99 (0.75, 1.31), 1.03 (0.80, 1.35), 0.97 (0.78, 1.21), and 1.25 (0.85, 1.84), respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similarly, caffeine intake was not associated with total or CVD mortality. Finally, we observed no association of the most recent coffee and caffeine intakes with total and CVD mortality in the subsequent 2 y.
Consumption of filtered caffeinated coffee was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality in women with CVD.
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