Coffee consumption and mortality in three Eastern European countries: results from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychological factors in Eastern Europe) study.
To test the association between coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer death in a European cohort.
Prospective cohort study. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were used.
Czech Republic, Russia and Poland.
A total of 28561 individuals followed for 6·1 years.
A total of 2121 deaths (43·1 % CVD and 35·7 % cancer mortality) occurred during the follow-up. Consumption of 3-4 cups coffee/d was associated with lower mortality risk in men (HR=0·83; 95 % CI 0·71, 0·99) and women (HR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·84), while further intake showed non-significant reduced risk estimates (HR=0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·04 and HR=0·51; 95 % CI 0·24, 1·10 in men and women, respectively). Decreased risk of CVD mortality was also found in men (HR=0·71; 95 % CI 0·54, 0·93) for consumption of 3-4 cups coffee/d. Stratified analysis revealed that consumption of a similar amount of coffee was associated with decreased risk of all-cause (HR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·87) and cancer mortality (HR=0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·99) in non-smoking women and decreased risk of all-cause mortality for >4 cups coffee/d in men with no/moderate alcohol intake.
Coffee consumption was associated with decreased risk of mortality. The protective effect was even stronger when stratification by smoking status and alcohol intake was performed.
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