Coffee consumption has been found to be associated with reduced risk of chronic conditions such as liver disease. However, less is known about the association between coffee and liver-related hospitalizations and deaths.
We conduct ed a prospective analysis on 14,208 participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Coffee consumption (cups/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires at visit 1 (1987–89) and visit 3 (1993–95). Liver-related hospitalizations were deﬁned as a hospitalization with any International Classiﬁcation of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code related to liver disease identiﬁed through cohort surveillance. Liver-related death was deﬁned as any death with a liver disease ICD-9 code listed anywhere on the death certiﬁcate form.
There were 833 incident cases of liver-related hospitalizations over a median follow-up of 24 years and 152 liver-related deaths over a median follow-up of 25 years. Participants who were in the highest category of coffee consumption (≥ 3cups/day) were more likely to be men, whites, current smokers, and current alcohol drinkers. In our fully adjusted model ,consuming ≥ 3 cups/day of coffee was signiﬁcantly associated with a reduced risk of liver-related hospitalizations compared with never drinkers (hazard ratio: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63–0.99). There were no signiﬁcant associations between coffee consumption and liver-related deaths after adjusting for covariates.
Coffee drinkers may be at lower risk for liver-related hospitalizations. This supports current evidence that low and moderate levels of coffee may be protective to the liver.