Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease: A condensed review of epidemiological evidence and mechanisms
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, and some studies have suggested it may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of poor health in the world. This manuscript reviews the evidence on the effect of habitual coffee consumption on CVD incidence and mortality. The review is based mostly on observational studies and meta analyses of the literature. In healthy people, compared to not consuming coffee, habitual consumption of 3-5 cups of coffee per day is associated with a 15% reduction in the risk of CVD, and higher consumption has not been linked to elevated CVD risk. Moreover, in comparison with no coffee intake, usual consumption of 1-5 cups/day is associated with a lower risk of death. In people who have already suffered a CVD event, habitual consumption does not increase the risk of a recurrent CVD or death. However, hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure should avoid consuming large doses of caffeine. In persons with well-controlled blood pressure, coffee consumption is probably safe, but this hypothesis should be confirmed by further investigations.
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