Coffee Consumption and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality – Three-Prefecture Cohort in Japan
Coffee, which contains various bioactive compounds, is one of the most popular beverages. Further accumulation of evidence is needed, however, to confirm whether coffee consumption would be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease in the general Japanese population.
Methods and Results:
We evaluated the association between coffee consumption frequency (never, sometimes, 1-2 cups/day, 3-4 cups/day and ≥5 cups/day) and mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, in 39,685 men and 43,124 women aged 40-79 years at baseline, in a 3-prefecture cohort study. The coffee consumption frequency was assessed on questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the association between coffee consumption frequency and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality with adjustment for potential confounders. During 411,341 and 472,433 person-years in men and women, respectively, a total of 7,955 men and 5,725 women died. Coffee consumption frequency was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in both genders (P for trend<0.001). In addition, the risks of mortality from cerebrovascular disease in men (P for trend<0.001), and heart disease in women (P for trend=0.031) were inversely associated with coffee consumption.
In this Japanese population, coffee drinking has a preventive effect on all-cause and on cardiovascular mortality in men and/or women.
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