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Coffee & Health
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Caffeine intake is not associated with serum testosterone levels in adult men: cross-sectional findings from NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012

D S Lopez et al, 2018.
The Aging Male, published online.
April 26, 2018



The association of caffeine intake with testosterone remains unclear. We evaluated the association of caffeine intake with serum testosterone among American men and determined whether this association varied by race/ethnicity and measurements of adiposity.


Data were analyzed for 2581 men (≥20 years old) who participated in the cycles of the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012, a cross-sectional study. Testosterone (ng/mL) was measured by immunoassay among men who participated in the morning examination session. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day). Multivariable weighted linear regression models were conducted.


We identified no linear relationship between caffeine intake and testosterone levels in the total population, but there was a non-linear association (pnonlinearity < .01). Similarly, stratified analysis showed nonlinear associations among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White men (pnonlinearity ≤ .03 both) and only among men with waist circumference <102 cm and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (pnonlinearity < .01, both).


No linear association was identified between levels of caffeine intake and testosterone in US men, but we observed a non-linear association, including among racial/ethnic groups and measurements of adiposity in this cross-sectional study. These associations are warranted to be investigated in larger prospective studies.

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