Caffeine intake and the risk of recurrent kidney stones in adults, an analysis of 2007 – 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
The association between caffeine intake and the risk of recurrent kidney stones is unknown. We examined the association between caffeine intake and the risk of recurrent kidney stones in adults.
Individuals with history of passing at least one kidney stone were included from 2007 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Recurrent kidney stones were defined using a standard questionnaire and structured dietary recalls were used to determine caffeine intake. The weighted logistic regression was used to assess the association between caffeine intake and the risk of recurrent kidney stones, and the non-linear relationship was explored with restricted cubic splines. Caffeine and dietary confounders (minerals and vitamins) were adjusted for total energy intake with residual model.
The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of recurrent kidney stones for per-quartile increment in caffeine intake were 1.15 (1.01-1.31) overall, 1.11 (0.96-1.29) for white race individuals, 1.33 (1.09-1.63) for non-white race individuals, 1.15 (0.97-1.36) for men, 1.24 (1.01-1.53) for women, 1.54 (1.08-2.19) for non-overweight individuals, 1.11 (0.97-1.28) for overweight/obese individuals, 1.13 (0.99-1.29) for caffeine from coffee, and 0.90 (0.79-1.03) for caffeine from non-coffee sources. A linear relationship was found between caffeine intake and the risk of recurrent kidney stones overall and in subgroup analyses.
Compared with those who reported passing only one kidney stone, caffeine intake was independently and linearly associated with a higher risk of recurrent kidney stones in adults, especially for women, individuals of non-white race and non-overweight subjects. The increased risk may arise from caffeine from coffee.
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