Kidney stone disease is a global health care problem, with a high recurrence rate after stone removal. It is thus crucial to develop effective strategies to prevent the formation of new or recurrent stones. Caffeine is one of the main components in caffeinated beverages worldwide (i.e., coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks). Previous retrospective and prospective studies have reported contradictory effects of caffeine on kidney stone risk. Although it has a diuretic effect on enhancing urinary output, it may slightly increase the stone risk index. However, 3 large cohorts have suggested a preventive role of caffeine in kidney stone disease. In addition, a recent in vitro study has addressed relevant mechanisms underlying the preventive role of caffeine against stone pathogenesis. This review summarizes the relevant data from previous evidence and discusses the association between caffeine consumption and kidney stone risk reduction.